www.duncanmcfarlane.org - The Bush admin's policy of torture

The Bush administration’s global torture network

“I have been unable to get clear..answers from my leadership about what constitutes lawful and humane treatment of detainees. I am certain that this confusion contributed to a wide range of abuses including death threats, beatings, broken bones, murder, exposure to elements, extreme forced physical exertion, hostage-taking, stripping, sleep deprivation and degrading treatment. I and troops under my command witnessed some of these abuses in both Afghanistan and Iraq.

Some argue that since our actions are not as horrifying as Al Qaeda's, we should not be concerned. When did Al Qaeda become any type of standard by which we measure the morality of the United States? We are America, and our actions should be held to a higher standard, the ideals expressed in documents such as the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.” Captain Ian Fishback, US 82nd Airborne - letter to Senator John McCain (1)

Captain Ian Fishback

“the abuse at Abu Ghraib paralleled similar if not worse abuse in Afghanistan, Guantánamo, elsewhere in Iraq, and in the chain of secret detention facilities where the U.S. government holds its “high value” detainees…” Human Rights Watch = (2)

“The US government, while publicly condemning torture, has authorized "coercive" techniques that amount to torture …giving comfort to those who torture and contradicting the very values the "war on terror" is supposed to defend” Amnesty International press release 1st Nov 2005 (3))

Both the US-led Multinational Force (MNF) and Iraqi security forces committed grave human rights violations, including torture and ill-treatment, arbitrary detention without charge or trial, and excessive use of force resulting in civilian deaths. Amnesty International2006 Iraq summary report = (4)

“every regime that tortures does so in the name of salvation, some superior goal, some promise of paradise…communism…the free market… the free world…the national interest…fascism…the leader…civilisation… the service of God…the need for information; the cost…will always be hell for at least one person…

An uncomfortable truth: the American and British soldiers in Iraq, like torturers everywhere, do not think of themselves as evil, but rather as guardians of the common good, dedicated patriots who get their hands soiled and endure perhaps some sleepless nights in order to deliver the blind ignorant majority from violence and anxiety.

torture does not, therefore, only corrupt those directly involved….Torture also corrupts the whole social fabric because it…forces people to make believe that nothing, in fact, has been happening; it necessitates that we lie to ourselves about what is being done not that far, after all, from [us]”

Ariel Dorfman, Chilean playwright and survivor of the US backed military dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet, May 2004


Many people in America and Britain refuse to accept that their own governments and militaries have been carrying out systematic torture, preferring to believe either that these are all just isolated incidents involving a few soldiers out of control – or that those being tortured are all terrorists anyway.

Some who do admit US and British forces have been carrying out torture – like Nick Cohen and the Euston Manifesto - have criticised Amnesty International for comparing the current global network of prisons and policy of torture the Soviet Gulag of the 20th century. The Euston Manifesto claims this is a gross exaggeration. They also claim that to call it the greatest threat to human rights since World War Two is an exaggeration.

I wish either group were right – but neither of them is.

Torture by US forces is not just a few soldiers out of control

First we know there is torture carried out by US military and intelligence around the world and by British forces in Iraq. We know this not just from the testimony of Iraqis , Afghans and British citizens held in US “detention facilities” but from the testimony of British and American soldiers and military police.

Captain Ian Fishback of the 82nd US Airborne wrote to Senator John McCain detailing torture by the unit – including breaking prisoners arms and legs with baseball bats – in Afghanistan and Iraq (5) He was effectively arrested by the Pentagon. (6) He was one of several soldiers in his unit to tell Human Rights Watch their unit had been involved in torture with the approval of their military and governmental superiors (.

US Military Intelligence Sergeant Samuel Provance who served at Abu Ghraib reported to investigating officers that torture wasn’t restricted to a few individuals but included dozens more soldiers and was approved by US military intelligence officers (7).He has also been punished by his superiors (8).

We know that torture takes place at Guantanamo Bay from the testimony of Sean Baker who was formerly in the Kentucky National Guard and the 438th Military Police Company at Camp Delta. He was left brain damaged after having his head repeatedly smashed against a concrete floor when he was made to play the role of a prisoner during a training exercise for camp guards. The soldiers beating him only stopped when the orange jump suit he was wearing tore to reveal military fatigues. (9)

US marine corp sergeant Heather Baker has also filed an affidavit based on conversations with Guantanamo guards who told her they routinely beat prisoners and smashed their heads against cell doors (10).

UN report in September 2006 found that torture in Iraq is now more widespread than under Saddam and that the bodies of those who had been tortured and killed or tortured to death in Iraqi mortuaries came from prisons run by the US and British militaries as well as those run by the Iraqi government and from militia killings (11).

Most of those tortured are not terrorists

U.S Military intelligence officers told the ICRC that they estimated that between 70% and 90% of prisoners held at Abu Ghraib and Camp Bucca were arrested by mistake (12).Most were either innocent of any crime or charged with minor crimes such as theft for which they were never given a trial.

An investigation in 2006 (by Seton Hall University law school of New Jersey) using US military documents showed that only 8 per cent of prisoners held at Guantanamo are accused of fighting for a terrorist group, and that 86 per cent were captured in Afghanistan or Pakistan "at a time when the US offered large bounties for the capture of suspected terrorists" (13). Even those suspected of terrorism are not proven terrorists – they have never been given a proper trial so we don’t know which of them are terrorists and which are innocent people arrested by mistake. This does not make it more likely we will catch the terrorists – it makes it less likely – because if you arrest the first person suspected you may well be getting the wrong person and the real terrorists may well be left free to carry on their attacks. What’s more holding people without trial and torturing them on suspicion (like indiscriminate bombing) is turning people who supported the war against Al Qa’ida or were neutral in it and their relatives in it into our enemies.

We would not tolerate torture or the jailing without trial of British or American citizens by the thousand. So how can we “build a democracy” in Iraq or Afghanistan using these methods?

The torture is not “just a bit of humiliation” – it includes beatings and electric shocks –sometimes leading to death

Some people have tried to shrug off torture by coalition and NATO forces as “just some humiliation”. They’re wrong. It includes beatings and electric shocks and sometimes results in death.

We know from a U.S army pathologists report that at least two Afghans held at Bagram were beaten to death and that at least another 6 Afghans had been killed or died in US custody during since the October 2001 invasion (keeping people without sleep and beating them for over 24 hours can lead to a heart attack). One was a taxi driver (14). At least one of the men held at Abu Ghraib was also beaten to death , as was at least one man held by British forces in Iraq – Baha Mousa (15). Prisoners have also been shot and injured or killed for demonstrating against conditions in prison, during riots, or when attempting to escape. Between the invasion and the end of 2003 the ICRC reported 17 prisoners wounded by gunshots and 7 killed at Abu Ghraib and Camp Bucca – and reported that , having witnessed many of these events, opening fire was not necessary. For instance one prisoner was shot dead for allegedly threatening a guard with a stick. (16)

Torture is also not aimed simply at causing physical pain but at destroying the victim’s sense of self – to try to make them feel worthless and powerless. The psychological and physical effects of torture can last for a lifetime.

The Bush administration’s use of torture goes far beyond Abu Ghraib

Torture in Iraq was not restricted to Abu Ghraib or Guantanamo Bay and did not end with the Abu Ghraib scandal – it has taken place in prisons across Iraq and across the world.

Human Rights Watch Annual Report for 2006 said “the abuse at Abu Ghraib paralleled similar if not worse abuse in Afghanistan, Guantánamo, elsewhere in Iraq, and in the chain of secret detention facilities where the U.S. government holds its “high value” detainees…” (17).

Then there are all the regimes which operate as the outer parts of the global torture regime. The military dictatorship of Pervez Musharraf – a staunch ally in the “war on terror” – has been operating its own torture and disappearances regime in co-operation with the CIA and has sent some prisoners on to other US jails (18, 19)

Under Clinton the FBI and CIA began the practice of “extra-ordinary rendition” (a nice legal sounding word which actually means illegally kidnapping people you suspect of being terrorists around the world for torture without any trial). Under Bush this programme has been greatly expanded. Suspects are sent for torture to Egypt, Jordan or Syria (all torturing dictatorships – the third one you may recognise as being on the ‘Axis of Evil’ invasion list) or to US military prisons such as Bagram Air base in Afghanistan or Abu Ghraib in Iraq (20) , (21). Then there are the secret prisons which the administration finally admitted existed, after demands by the International Committee for the Red Cross for access to prisoners held there (22, 23). The administration now assure us that these prisons have been closed down and all the prisoners held there transferred to Guantanamo. Since this is the same administration though which told us Saddam was helping Al Qa’ida and had nuclear weapons it’s less than surprising that they seem to have been lying again (as Reprieve and Human Rights Watch report). (24, 25)

So we have a global system of kidnapping, detention without trial and often torture – sometimes leading to death. Those held in it often have no idea what crime they’re meant to have committed, get no trial and – if they don’t die during torture – are told they’ll either be killed or will never be released unless they confess to whatever crimes they’re accused of (26, 27). That sounds to me as if there are many similarities to the Soviet Gulag system. It’s a similar system on a smaller scale in terms of numbers of people involved – but the treatment of its victims is as bad as that of the victims of Soviet Gulags and being sent into the Bush administration’s system is arbitrary and based purely on suspicion just as persecution of Soviet dissidents was.

We don’t know exactly how many people are being held – we know that there are over 10,000 at any one time in Iraq according to Pentagon statements (28) and at least 1,000 altogether in Guantanamo and Bagram at any one time (based on the numbers the ICRC is given access to each year (29). So globally a figure of 12,000 held at any one time in US “detention centres” and delivered by the CIA to prisons of governments co-operating in extra-ordinary rendition would be a reasonable estimate of the minimum number of detainees. The actual figure may be much higher since the Bush administration has a history of not allowing the ICRC access to all its prisons or even all the prisoners in the ones it does give them access to . Nor does this figure include those held without trial and/or tortured by allies of the US largely kept in power by the US such as the Saudi monarchy or General Musharraf in Pakistan. This is not millions of people at once but then Nick Cohen’s figures on the Soviet Gulags for millions cover decades – and the numbers being held, or even the existence of the prison camps, was not known at the time most prisoners were held – under Stalin. Amnesty International’s description of the global torture system being run by the US government as a 21st century Global Gulag is entirely appropriate.

The gulags held around 2.5 million people at one time at their height in the 1950s under Stalin. Thankfully those held without trial in US “detention facilities” are, as far as we know, a fraction of that number. It is also highly likely that if Amnesty and Human Rights Watch were not publicly condemning the Bush administration’s tacit policy of torture then even more people would be being tortured and even more of them would not be coming back alive. To minimise the importance of even one person being jailed without trial or tortured, or tortured to death on the orders of a democratically elected government would be to open the floodgates. And it is not only one person – it’s tens of thousands at any one time held without trial, thousands at any one time being tortured and we know that some of these people die as a result of that torture. Democratic rights either apply to everyone in a democracy or they will end up applying to no-one.

The Bush administration may not be jailing its own citizens without trial and torturing them – like for instance the Chinese government – but it has proposed legislation which would have allowed it to if congress hadn’t voted it down . The vigilance of groups like Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch helped prevented that from happening.

British military and government involvement in torture in Iraq

I would like to say that no British forces have been involved in torture – but sadly they have – and the British Prime Minister and Defence Ministers have been to blame.

We know from the testimony not only of Iraqi victims but from RAF officers and British soldiers who witnessed it that two squads of British troops from the Queens’ Lancashire Regiment went in shifts to kick and beat Iraqis with their fists and with metal pipes over 36 hours, resulting in the death of Baha Mousa, an Iraqi waiter, and permanent kidney damage for some of the survivors. While one of the unit – Captain Dai Davies – had been killed by a roadside bomb the day before there was no evidence linking Baha Mousa or any of the other Iraqis to this bombing. He was one of many Iraqis who died in British custody. (30) , (31) , (32) , (33) (34).

The judge presiding at the court martial meant to try those responsible said that only one of the men identified as the torturers by witnesses was actually put on trial. He was found guilty of “abuse” of Iraqi prisoners. The rest were not only not tried but were called as less than impartial witnesses during the court martial. One of them – Lieutenant Craig Rodgers – was promoted to Captain and is now training British troops before they’re sent to Iraq and Afghanistan (presumably this would include training in “conditioning” and “tactical questioning” of prisoners – the British army’s newest euphemisms for torture) (35) .

British soldiers testified that they had been under pressure from US military intelligence to get more information from prisoners – and that this also led to torture , (36) (37).In that case the British government is also responsible for allowing its military to be integrated into the Bush administration’s torture system .

Government ministers in statements to parliament also eventually admitted that British military intelligence officers had been present at Abu Ghraib (38).

Other cases of beatings by British soldiers, including beatings with iron rods or metal pipes have been alleged by Iraqis. There have been other court martials, such as the Camp Breadbasket court martial, but these did not allow crucial statements from witnesses and victims to be heard (according to the UK's Attorney General) - and relatives of those Iraqis first beaten and tortured at Camp Breadbasket say they were also beaten with metal bars when they asked to see their relatives. (39). In the circumstances courts martial’s verdicts cannot be held to exonerate anyone – that would require a real trial.

Why the Bush administration’s global jail without trial and torture system or “global gulag” is the greatest current threat to human rights worldwide

“How do people get to this clandestine Archipelago? Hour by hour planes fly there, ships steer their course there, and trains thunder off to it – but all with nary a mark on them to tell of their destination. And at ticket windows or at travel bureaus the employees would be astounded if you asked for a ticket to go there. They know nothing of it. They’ve never heard of the archipelago as a whole or any of its innumerable islands”Aleksander Solzhenitsin ‘The Gulag Archipelago’(40)

“.. a Gulfstream jet, owned by a CIA front company, used Prestwick airport on numerous occasions….…the Gulfstream, nicknamed the Guantanamo Bay Express, visited Glasgow airport nine times in 2003….The records show too that a Boeing 737, also understood to be owned by a CIA front company, visited Glasgow three times ….The Boeing visited RAF Northolt…twice in December 2003…….The Gulfstream and the 737 are understood to be used by the CIA for "rendition", the government-sanctioned transfer of terrorist suspects to countries where torture is a routine method of extracting information …The former always departs from Washington and has flown to 50 destinations outside the US, including the American naval base at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba, as well as Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Morocco, Afghanistan and Libya The prisoner transfers were first reported by Swedish television last year …American agents had arrived in Stockholm on the Gulfstream in December 2001 to take two suspected terrorists to Egypt. Witnesses described seeing the prisoners, who wore hoods, being handed to US agents. The clothes of the handcuffed prisoners were cut off... they were forcibly given sedatives… The Gulfstream flew them to Egypt, where they claimed they were beaten and tortured with electric shocks to their genitals. In relation to planes landing in Scotland, government agencies and Glasgow airport said they had no information on the flights or who was on board. Execair, the company which handles the f lights in Glasgow, refused to disclose any information about them.” Herald Newspaper 14th Jan 2005 (41)

As human rights watch point out the US is one of the oldest and easily the most powerful democracy in the world. Their actions are the benchmark against which other states are judged. If the US government don’t uphold human rights themselves then who else will be persuaded to?

One reason we must keep to a higher standard of behaviour is that every time we fail to other governments use this as a justification for their own use of torture , killing of civilians and other human rights abuses and atrocities. The governments of Pakistan, Uzbekistan , Saudi Arabia and many others use “the war on terror” to justify torture and execution without trial. The Russian government uses it as a justification for tortures and massacres in Chechnya; The Israeli government as a justification for the killing of Palestinians.

When our governments criticise the Sudanese for massacres in Darfur they simply ignore them now because our moral authority has been thrown away by torture and imprisonment without trial.

That is why the Bush administration adopting a tacit policy of torture is easily the greatest threat to human rights worldwide since World War Two – because the most powerful democracy in the world approving torture and holding people indefinitely without trial sends a message to the rest of the world that human rights aren’t serious – you can just say you uphold them while torturing people and you’ll get off with it. That’s why Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch are absolutely right to have criticised the Bush administration on this and condemned terrorist killings of civilians.

Nick Cohen and the Euston Manifesto meanwhile focus most of their criticism on neither the Bush administration nor Al Qa’ida but mostly on the anti-war demonstrators and human rights organisations. This is a strange choice of villains. Cohen’s other target is the Soviet Union under Stalin which would be well worth criticising – if it still existed – and Saddam’s Anfal campaign – again genocidal – but it happened in 1988. It’s slightly late to be criticising these atrocities and bizarre to be focusing on them when there are atrocities to try to end here and now. They show nothing about “the left” or “liberals” – Stalin was neither a socialist (in anything but empty rhetoric) nor a liberal. Nor was Saddam. Both crushed any trade union not controlled by their own party and had democratic socialists jailed or killed.

Were there other massacres on a scale that makes the number of people being tortured (including those tortured to death) in US prisons look small by comparison? Certainly – lots of them - in Cambodia in the 1970s by the (US and Chinese backed) Khmer Rouge (the US backed them to punish the Vietnamese government for having defeated the US in the Vietnam war) ; in Vietnam in the 60s and 70s by US and US backed forces; in Afghanistan in the 70s and 80s by Soviet forces and by the US-backed Mujahedin they were fighting ; in Guatemala by the Guatemalan military and their US backed ‘military advisers’. In Chechnya today by Russian forces ; in Tibet by Chinese forces. ‘Re-education camps’ and ‘lunatic asylums in China which tortures tens of thousands of its people annually and executes thousands without fair trials. In Darfur where Sudanese government forces and militias backed by them are committing massacres. That these governments or Al Qa’ida are committing atrocities does not somehow cancel out atrocities committed by our own governments – in fact atrocities by our own governments result in both new recruits for Al Qa’ida and in the undermining of the moral authority of democracies to criticise undemocratic regimes. Nor do I consider beating people and leaving them with permanent physical and psychological injuries – and sometimes killing them - to be a particularly minor abuse of human rights – and that is what we’re talking about – not just minor “abuses”.

In the words of Ariel Dorfman, a survivor of the Pinochet regime which carried out systematic torture and murder in Chile in the 70s and 80s “Are we so scared that we are willing to knowingly let others perpetrate, in the dark and in our name, acts of terror that will eternally corrode and corrupt us?”

copyright©Duncan McFarlane 2007 - you may reproduce this article freely as long as my name is mentioned as the author of it

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Sources and Footnotes

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(1) = Washington Post Wednesday, September 28, 2005; A21,‘ A Matter of Honor’, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/27/AR2005092701527_pf.html

(2) = Human Rights Watch World Report 2006 - ‘Torture and Inhumane Treatment: A Deliberate U.S. Policy’ - http://hrw.org/wr2k6/introduction/2.htm#_Toc121910421

(3) = Amnesty International 1 Nov 2005 ‘TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT IN THE ‘WAR ON TERROR’’, http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engact400142005

(4) = Amnesty International Annual Report 2006 - ‘Summary of Country report for Iraq’’, http://web.amnesty.org/report2006/irq-summary-eng

(5) = Washington Post Wednesday, September 28, 2005; A21,‘ A Matter of Honor’, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/27/AR2005092701527_pf.html

(6) = Sunday Times Review 05 Oct 2005, ‘Andrew Sullivan: How America tiptoed into the torture chamber’, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2092-1806906,00.html

(7) = ABC News 18 May 2004,‘Intel Staffer Cites Abu Ghraib Cover-Up’, http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/Investigation/story?id=131658&page=1 and http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/print?id=131658

(8) = ABC News 21 May 2004, ‘Military Punishes Abu Ghraib Key Witness’, http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/Investigation/story?id=131659&page=1 and http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/print?id=131659

(9) = Scotsman 27 May 2004,'Soldier left brain damaged after playing unruly prisoner at Guantánamo', http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=602732004

(10) = Independent 14 Oct 2006 - ‘Guantanamo guards 'admitted abusing inmates' - http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/article1870834.ece

(11) = BBC News Online 21 Sep 2006 - ‘Iraq torture 'worse after Saddam' ' - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/5368360.stm

(12) = ICRC Feb 2004 - ‘REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC) ON THE TREATMENT BY THE COALITION FORCES OF PRISONERS OF WAR AND OTHER PROTECTED PERSONS BY THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS IN IRAQ , Chapter 1 , paragraph 7, http://cryptome.org/icrc-report.htm

or http://www.derechos.org/nizkor/us/doc/icrc-prisoner-report-feb-2004.pdf

(13) = The Independent 27 Mar 2007 - ‘New maximum-security jail to open at Guantanamo Bay' - http://news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/article1204499.ece

(14) = Human Rights Watch 20 May 2005 - ‘Afghanistan: Killing and Torture by U.S. Predate Abu Ghraib ' - http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/05/20/afghan10992.htm

(15) = Panorama programme transcript BBC One 13 Mar 2007 - ‘A Good Kicking ' - I've put up a copy of the full transcript at http:www.duncanmcfarlane.org/panorama_a_good_kicking_transcript/ as the original link to transcript on the BBC website at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/6455113.stm is now broken - a brief summary is still available on the BBC website at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/6435815.stm and you can email panorama at to ask them to email you the transcript or fix the website link at panorama@bbc.co.uk)

(16) = ICRC Feb 2004 - ‘REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC) ON THE TREATMENT BY THE COALITION FORCES OF PRISONERS OF WAR AND OTHER PROTECTED PERSONS BY THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS IN IRAQ , Section 5, http://cryptome.org/icrc-report.htm#5.%20Disproportionate%20and%20excessive%20use%20of%20force%20against%20persons%20deprived%20of%20their%20liberty

or http://www.derechos.org/nizkor/us/doc/icrc-prisoner-report-feb-2004.pdf

(17) = Human Rights Watch World Report 2006 - ‘Torture and Inhumane Treatment: A Deliberate U.S. Policy’' - http://hrw.org/wr2k6/introduction/2.htm#_Toc121910421

(18) = Guardian 16 Mar 2007 - ‘Without a trace' - http://www.guardian.co.uk/alqaida/story/0,,2035491,00.html

(19) = Amnesty International 29 Sep 2006 - ‘Pakistan Human rights ignored in the "war on terror' - http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGASA330362006?open&of=ENG-369

(20) = New Statesman 17 May 2004 - ‘America's Gulag' - http://www.newstatesman.com/200405170016

(21) = Amnesty International 1 Jan 2006 - ‘"Rendition" and secret detention: A global system of human rights violations' - http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engpol300032006

(22) = ICRC Operational update 12-12-2005 ,‘ US detention related to the events of 11 September 2001 and its aftermath – the role of the ICRC’, http://www.icrc.org/Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList454/85C5BCF85E7A57A4C12570D5002E6889

(23) = Guardian 7 Sep 2006 - ‘US confirms existence of secret prison network' - http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1866277,00.html

(24) = Human Rights Watch 27 Feb 2007 - ‘US: Secret CIA Prisoners Still Missing' - http://hrw.org/english/docs/2007/02/26/usint15408.htm

(25) = Sunday Times 10 Sep 2006 - ‘CIA still hiding 'ghost' captives' - http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article634116.ece

(26) = Observer 14 Mar 2004 - ‘How we survived jail hell ' - http://observer.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,6903,1168937,00.html

(27) = New York Times 30 Nov 2004 - ‘Red Cross Finds Detainee Abuse in Guantánamo' - http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/30/politics/30gitmo.html?ex=1259470800&en=825f0a984565241f&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland

(28) = Amnesty International 6 Mar 2006 - ‘Beyond Abu Ghraib: detention and torture in Iraq' - http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engmde140012006

(29) = ICRC 31 Dec 2006- ‘Operational update US detention related to the events of 11 September 2001 and its aftermath – the role of the ICRC' - hhttp://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/usa-detention-update-121205

(30) = Panorama programme transcript BBC One 13 Mar 2007 - ‘A Good Kicking ' - I've put up a copy of the full transcript at http:www.duncanmcfarlane.org/panorama_a_good_kicking_transcript/ as the original link to transcript on the BBC website at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/6455113.stm is now broken - a brief summary is still available on the BBC website at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/6435815.stm and you can email panorama at to ask them to email you the transcript or fix the website link at panorama@bbc.co.uk)

(31) = Scotsman 19 May 2004 - ‘Soldiers 'took turns to beat Iraqi captives'' - http://news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?tid=404&id=199022004

(32) = Amnesty International 15 Mar 2007 - ‘United Kingdom Court Martial acquittals: many questions remain unanswered and further action required to ensure justice' - http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGEUR450052007

(33) = Guardian 21 Feb 2004 - ‘'They were kicking us, laughing. It was a great pleasure for them'' - http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,1153011,00.html

(34) = ABC News 8 May 2004 - ‘Rumsfeld apologies, Red Cross says Iraq abuses rife' - http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/s1104033.htm

(35) = Panorama programme transcript BBC One 13 Mar 2007 - ‘A Good Kicking ' - I've put up a copy of the full transcript at http:www.duncanmcfarlane.org/panorama_a_good_kicking_transcript/ as the original link to transcript on the BBC website at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/6455113.stm is now broken - a brief summary is still available on the BBC website at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/6435815.stm and you can email panorama at to ask them to email you the transcript or fix the website link at panorama@bbc.co.uk)

(36) = Panorama programme transcript BBC One 13 Mar 2007 - ‘A Good Kicking ' - I've put up a copy of the full transcript at http:www.duncanmcfarlane.org/panorama_a_good_kicking_transcript/ as the original link to transcript on the BBC website at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/6455113.stm is now broken - a brief summary is still available on the BBC website at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/6435815.stm and you can email panorama at to ask them to email you the transcript or fix the website link at panorama@bbc.co.uk)

(37) = Times 14 Feb 2007 - ‘Basra military abuse case: what the court martial heard' - http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article1385291.ece

(38) = Guardian 16 Sep 2004 - ‘UK officers linked to torture jail' - http://www.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,5017135-103550,00.html

(39) = The Independent 27 Feb 2007 - ‘UK troops 'beat relatives of Camp Breadbasket captives'' - http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/article13069.ece

(40) = Alexander Solzhenitsyn (1973)'The Gulag Archipelago Fontana Books, 1974 , Chapter 1 , page 3

(41) = The Herald (Glasgow, Scotland,UK) 14 Jan 2005 - ‘Torture jets' made other landings at Scots airports Another plane joined 'Guantanamo Bay Express'' - link to archived article

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